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AUTUMN   LEAVES

October 2020   by Jeanette Mac Kenzie

 

    It’s that time of year again.  Most of the rusty-blonde evergreen needles (leaves) have fallen from the trees.  Different types of evergreen trees and shrubs will drop their needles over different time periods:  larch and cypress -yearly, spruce & firs- every few years, pines -2-3 years and cedars -3 years plus.   Evergreens keep their green color year round as the falling needles are located in the interior branches.  Because there are so many white pines in our area and each tree is on its own drop schedule there always seems to be lots of needles on the ground in Sept & Oct.  Because pine needles beak down at such a slow rate they have little effect on the soil pH so can be used for mulch or as a compost ingredient.  Also the needles are great for making pathways in the garden.


In the autumn, as the daylight lessens a bit each day and temperatures start to drop, chlorophyll production also slows down.  This decreases the green pigment in the leaves.  Soon shades of yellow, orange, brown, from carotenoids, which have always been present in the leaves, begin to show.  However, the red shades of anthocyanin are produced in the autumn.  It is believed that this pigment plays a role in readying the tree for next spring.

At the spots where the leaf stem meets the tree/shrub a layer of cells begins to form slowly severing the tissue that supports the leaf and causing dehydration.   The tree seals the area off until the leaf detaches and falls to the ground.


Now if you and/or neighbors have lots of deciduous plants, soon your ground is covered with colorful leaves. In times past we would rake the whole area into a huge pile and all the kids and a few adults would jump into the leaves.  Soon the air was filled with the smell of burning leaves, as this is how we disposed of them.  This practice is now frowned upon and illegal in many places.


Rather than transporting the leaves to the Transfer Station there are ways of using the leaves on your property.

First of all they can be used to add to your own compost pile.  Compost is a partially composed of carbon materials/brown matter such as leaves, conifer needles, small twigs, shredded paper & cardboard. The pile should consist of about 2-3 parts of carbon material to 1 part nitrogen material.   The nitrogen matter or green matter ingredients are grass clippings, weeds and spent annuals and perennial trimmings, sea weed and some kitchen ingredients such as vegetable and fruit peelings, egg shells, coffee grounds   If you have LOTS of leaves the extras can be bagged and saved to add to grass clippings next summer.  You can just let the pile sit there and it should be useable in about a year.  However, it will decompose much faster if it is forked over, which adds oxygen.   Also add water when there is little rain.    If your compost pile is large, you may want to just spend a few minutes daily to eventually get the whole thing turned over.  It counts as part of your daily exercise routine!

By first running them over with the lawn mower, the shredded leaves will break down faster when added to garden. This will help attract earthworms and beneficial bacteria and enrich the soil.  Shredded leaves can also just be left on the lawn where they will break down over the winter providing nutrients for the grass as well as shading the soil to help prevent weed seeds from growing.  The shredded leaves make great mulch for shrubs, trees, perennials and veggie beds.  Add 2-3 inches deep making sure that none of it touches the stems or trunks of the plants.  As the leaves break down they add nutrients to the plants.




There are numerous sources in “computer -land” that show many ways of using autumn leaves for decorating and crafting.

If you are a kid at heart or have young ones in your family you may want to just jump into a big pile of raked leaves on a sunny brisk autumn day.  Then…….. head for the kitchen for a cup of hot chocolate and popcorn.

Happy leaf raking


SIMPLE  LAYERING

October 2020  by Jeanette Mac Kenzie

      First of all I am not talking about putting on an extra sweatshirt, sweater or jacket when the weather is cold but variable.  In horticulture layering refers to a method of propagating another plant from a stem or branch while still attached to the parent plant.  Some plants and shrubs will do this on their own. 

       Fall is the best time to do a simple layering one of the easiest methods of propagating some plants.   Evergreens, however do better when the process is done in the spring. 

     Last October I decided to try layering a rhododendron.  It was a good-sized bush with numerous branches already growing near the ground.  I choose 5 branches to try the process on. 


     First I cut about half way through the stem, and then dusted the area with a rooting hormone powder.   Next I inserted a small twig (toothpicks work well) to prop open the cut area.  Carefully bending down the cut area into a dug trench in the soil, which was then covered with 3-4 inches of soil.  There are special C shaped pins that can be used to pin down the cut stem in the soil.  However being a frugal New England gardener I made my own with some heavy wire to hold the stem in place.  On several of the stems I just put a brick or heavy stone to keep the stem from popping up.  The area was then watered.  During the following year I made sure that the area was kept moist.  The  buried stem will not root if the soil is dry!


     A year later the rooting stems were given a bit of a tug to make sure they had developed roots.  They had, so I cut off the new plants from the parent plant, dug and planted them in different areas of the property.  Since the new root systems were still small,l the plants were staked for support. 


     Simple Layering is best used on plants that have stems that can be bent down to the ground.  Examples include: Holly, Forsythia, Daphne, Camellia, Magnolia, Lilac, Viburnum, Witch hazel, Smoke Bush, Rhododendron, Azalea, fruit bushes, Maples, slow growing herbs such as rosemary, lavender, bay.  Some plants will root in a matter of weeks such as tomatoes and tomatillos while others take up to a year.

     The rooting hormone powder will give the plant a better chance of putting out new roots along the buried stem. Various brands are available at Amazon, Home Depot, Lowes, Walmart, Ace Hardware and most good-sized plant nurseries.


      If you want some new plants, basically free, try your hand at simple layering.  You might even get some to root and get potted up in time for our plant sale next spring.


The Stinking Rose    Oct. 2019  by Jeanette Mac Kenzie

     Some gardeners are happy when the season is over and their gardens are all put to bed for the winter.  Others however still want to keep planting.  If you are in the latter category this topic is for you. 

           I am referring to the STINKING ROSE commonly known as garlic.  The term reportedly goes back to Greek and Roman times.  If looked at from underneath, a garlic bulb does slightly resemble a white rose with the large ends of the cloves  forming the petals.

           Garlic should be planted anytime between mid Sept. to the end of Nov.  Garlic likes a well-drained soil in full sunlight with lots of organic matter, so add some compost to the planting area.  Keep the bulbs intact until you are ready to plant the individual cloves.   I like to use a dibble to make the planting holes.  Plant the cloves with the pointed end up about 6-8 inches apart then cover with 2 inches of soil.  For a finishing touch add mulch.  I prefer salt marsh hay, but straw, chopped leaves or grass clippings will also work.  Garlic does not like any competition from weeds so the mulch will help with this problem next spring.

           Next summer when about half of the leaves have died back, it is time to harvest the garlic.   Using a garden fork or shovel loosen the soil around the plants then gently lift them out without pulling on the stalks.  Shake off most of the soil then bunch 6-8 plants together and hang to cure in a dry, well-ventilated place such as a shed or garage.  The curing process takes 4-6 weeks.  The garlic can be used any time during this process but the flavor won’t be as strong.

           Perhaps no other herb has been used for as long and in as many cultures as garlic.  Its powers were often associated with physical stamina, endurance and strength.  From the Pharaohs of Egypt to Chinese dynasties, there are references to garlic’s use as a food, as a medicine and as  currency.   In 2016, world production of garlic was 26.6 million tons, with China alone accounting for 80% followed by India with 5%.

UNDERSTANDING GARLIC VARIETIES:  There are 2 main types both of which can be grown here in New England: soft neck and hard neck.  Within these 2 categories there is a great variation in bulb size, flavor as well as hardiness, disease resistance and storage potential

      SOFT NECK: This is the type best used if you like to braid your garlic, as the stem is more flexible.  The cloves are smaller but there are more of them and they tend to keep longer.  Most garlic found in a grocery store is soft neck.  In general is NOT recommended to plant grocery store garlic as it is apt to have been heavily fumigated and sprayed. Soft neck garlic has 2 sub-groups namely SILVERSKIN and ARTICHOKE.  Within each sub group there are numerous varieties.

           HARD NECK garlic has a central stalk called a scape with usually one row of cloves around it.  The scapes are often harvested and used in stir-fry or pesto.  I like to use them in flower bouquets as they have an interesting curving twist to them.  Hard neck garlic should only be grown in cold climates.  Because the outer paper of the garlic bud is thinner, hard necks don’t store as long.  Hard neck garlic has 3 main sub groups: PORCELAIN, ROCAMBOLE and PURPLE STRIPE.  Like the soft neck garlic, there are numerous varieties within each sub group.

           While checking the various sources of getting garlic on line I noticed that many are already sold out.  Check out your favorite local sources for garlic.  Your initial purchase of garlic bulbs can be a bit pricey.           When you find a variety you like, each year save some of the largest bulbs for planting in the fall then you shouldn’t have to ever buy garlic again.

 

           Did you know that garlic repels blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes and ticks?   Am not sure if you need to eat it or rub it on your skin or both.  With Halloween coming up, keep in mind that it is also supposed to repel vampires and evil spirits.

On the next nice autumn day get out into your garden and plant some garlic.


PEONIES

Sept. 2019   by Jeanette Mac Kenzie

       For thousands of years peonies have been cultivated in China & Japan, where some of the finest varieties come from.  These hardy perennials bloom in the spring and early summer in every shade except blue. I wouldn’t be surprised if hybridizers aren’t working on that color.  Peonies can stand the summer heat but need a period of chilling which our climate amply provides.  Peony plants are very long lived some lasting up to 100 years.

     As peonies symbolize “good fortune” and “happy marriage” they are a popular flower for weddings and anniversaries with their sweet scent.  In Victorian times using the Language of Flowers they represented bashfulness. 

     Unfortunately their bloom season is less than 2 weeks.  There is a new industry of growing peonies in Alaska as they are harvested in July and Aug when ours have all gone by.  Thus cut peony blooms can be ordered over a longer time period.

     Autumn is the time of the year to plant and/or divide peonies.  Unlike most other perennials, peonies don’t need periodic division.  Well then, why am I telling you this is the time to divide them!  The only way to propagate a named variety of peony is by plant division.  Growing from seed can take up to 5 years to get flowers but they won’t be like the parent plant.  If you already have some  peony plants that you like, why not divide them rather than buying more?

  

 If you are going to dig and divide first cut the foliage back to an inch or so.  Carefully dig up the whole root system with a spading fork.  Shake or gently hose off the soil so the small pink buds at the crown of the root system are visible. These buds are the beginning of next year’s growth.  Cut through the root system with a sharp knife, dividing the peony plant with 3-5 buds in each division.  The roots them selves resemble carrots. 

     In a sunny area, with well drained, soil, dig a hole about 1 ft. deep and 2 feet wide.  Prepare it by adding a light dusting of bone meal, limestone and either some well-aged manure or compost in the bottom of the hole. 

    Pay close attention to this detail.   Plant the peony division so that the buds are only 2 inches below the surface of the soil.  This 2-inch depth is critical – if planted deeper than this, the plant WILL NOT BLOSSOM If you have peonies that haven’t bloomed in a long time this could be the problem or the plant isn’t growing in full sun.

     For an established peony plant, you don’t plan on dividing don’t cut the foliage until late fall as it will continue to build strength for the next year.

     For you floral arrangers, I have found that peony leaves are great as fillers for flower arrangements as they last a long time when cut. 

     Don’t worry if you see ants all over the flower buds.  They are just after the sweet nectar that forms around the outside of the buds.  Ants don’t do any harm to the plant.

     If I have motivated you to considering dividing your peony plants do it before early Oct. so the roots have a chance to get established before the ground freezes.  Once the ground does freeze, for the first winter, add a few inches of mulch but be sure to remove it in early spring. 

     Maybe at the next garden club’s spring flower show you might win a blue ribbon for your peony blossom!


Moon Seeds

Jeanette Mac Kenzie July 2019

This year we are celebrating the 50th anniversary of humans landing on the moon.  To tie in with the anniversary is this article about MOON SEEDS you might find interesting.  

500: Seeds flown to the Moon     by Richard Hollingham July 17. 2019

Before he became an astronaut, Stuart Roosa had an even more dangerous job. He was a smoke jumper – a highly trained firefighter who would parachute into remote forest areas to tackle wildfires.

When he was assigned as command module pilot for Apollo 14, in January 1971, the US Forest Service once again asked for his help. Scientists wanted to see whether seeds would be affected by weightlessness.

Roosa agreed to take 500 seeds from American redwood, pine, sycamore, fir and gum trees. He carried them in his personal kit the 238,855 miles to the Moon, where he orbited 34 times, before returning to Earth.

The seeds survived the journey but during a decontamination process (part of the procedure to protect the Earth from possible moonbugs), the capsule containing the seeds burst open. Scientists feared many would be lost or damaged.  Once they were planted, however, most of the flown seeds grew into healthy saplings, with no discernible difference between those flown to the Moon and regular seeds on Earth.

Trees grown from the seeds have become known as Moon Trees. They have been planted around the world, including at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida and in the White House garden.

A Moon sycamore overlooks Roosa's grave at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. The trees and second generation Moon Trees, grown from cuttings carried by the astronaut, will continue to provide a living legacy of the Apollo missions long after all the astronauts have died.


NaHCO3

by Jeanette Mac Kenzie

      Unless you are a whiz at chemistry, you probably won’t recognize this as the formula for sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda.   This has been used throughout history as a rising agent for baking.  When mixed with acids such as chocolate, lemon juice, vinegar, cream of tartar, yogurt, baking powder, etc. it makes bubbles that cause dough to rise.  It also has been used as a cleaner, and a deodorizer.  How many of you have an opened box of baking soda in your refrigerator or have scrubbed a pan with burnt food using baking soda? 

     That is all well and good but what does it have to do with horticulture?  Baking soda has many uses related to gardening.

·       To clean clay pots or a birdbath just sprinkle some baking soda, scrub with a brush or damp cloth, rinse and let dry.

·        To encourage better blooms on your flowering plants mix 1 Tbsp baking soda with 2 quarts of water and apply to the soil around the plants.

·       To sooth itchy skin from bug bites make a paste from baking soda and water to apply to the skin.  Let it do its job for about 10 minutes then rinse off.  The itchiness will have subsided.

·       Make your tomatoes sweeter by sprinkling a small amount of baking soda around the base of the plant.  The powder lowers the acidity of the soil and thus makes the tomatoes less acidic and sweeter.

·       Some garden plants are susceptible to fungus such as powdery mildew.  Make a mixture of 1-teaspoon baking soda, a teaspoon of liquid soap, 2 teaspoons of vegetable oil and 5 cups of water to spray on both sides of infected leaves.  This makes the surface less acidic and limits he ability of the fungus spores to grow.

·       To prolong the life of cut flowers add a teaspoon of baking soda to the water in the vase.

·       To kill weeds that grow in your sidewalk sprinkle baking soda on them.  It will burn the leaves and the weeds will disappear in a few days.

ph  Plant roots absorb nutrients from soil when they  are dissolved in water.  If the mixture of water and nutrients are in soil that is too acidic or too alkaline the roots aren’t able to uptake the nutrients even though they may be present in the soil.  To get a rough idea about the pH (degree of acidity or alkalinity) of your soil try this simple test.

Get your kids involved in this bit of chemistry.

      Collect soil samples from several areas of your garden and put in 2 separate containers.  To one container add 1/2 cup of vinegar.  If it begins to bubble the soil is alkaline meaning the pH level is above 7 which is neutral. 

       In the second container add 1/2 cup of baking soda and enough water to make it muddy.   If this bubbles your soil is acidic meaning the pH is below 7.  This just gives you a rough idea of the soil pH but isn’t as detailed as a pH test done with a commercial test kit.   Soils in New England are more apt to be acidic.   Free soil tests are offered by the Master Gardeners at the Hingham Farmers Market August 10 Sat from 9-1:00. at the Bathing Beach.  If you can’t wait until then check out the University of Massachusetts Extension Service  at  http://soiltest.umass.edu .  They charge a small fee but give you good directions on how to correct your soil pH if needed.

·       When you gardening day is over, wash your grubby hands with soap & water, then again with some baking soda to really get them clean.

·       1.  When using these home -made mixes, first test on a small portion of the plant to make sure there are no adverse effects.

·       2.  Use suggested dosages as too strong a mix can burn plant leaves.

·       3.  Avoid spraying on flower buds & stalks.


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